NIH And FDA Examine Serious Side Effect That Su...
You are most likely to have side effects from dietary supplements if you take them at high doses or instead of prescribed medicines, or if you take many different supplements. Some supplements can increase the risk of bleeding or, if taken before surgery, can change your response to anesthesia. Supplements can also interact with some medicines in ways that might cause problems. Here are a few examples:
NIH and FDA Examine Serious Side Effect That Su...
Manufacturers may add vitamins, minerals, and other supplement ingredients to foods you eat, especially breakfast cereals and beverages. As a result, you may get more of these ingredients than you think, and more might not be better. Taking more than you need costs more and might also raise your risk of side effects. For example, too much vitamin A can cause headaches and liver damage, reduce bone strength, and cause birth defects. Excess iron causes nausea and vomiting and may damage the liver and other organs.
Several independent organizations offer quality testing and allow products that pass these tests to display a seal of quality assurance that indicates the product was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label, and does not contain harmful levels of contaminants. These seals do not guarantee that a product is safe or effective. Organizations that offer quality testing include:*
The selenium content of soil affects the amounts of selenium in the plants that animals eat, so the quantities of selenium in animal products also vary [2,5]. However, selenium concentration in soil has a smaller effect on selenium levels in animal products than in plant-based foods because animals maintain predictable tissue concentrations of selenium through homeostatic mechanisms. Furthermore, formulated livestock feeds generally contain the same levels of selenium.
Selenium levels are often low in people living with HIV, possibly because of inadequate intakes (especially in developing countries), excessive losses due to diarrhea, and malabsorption [2,25]. Observational studies have found an association between lower selenium concentrations in people with HIV and an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, death, and, in pregnant women, HIV transmission to offspring and early death of offspring [26-30]. Some randomized clinical trials of selenium supplementation in adults with HIV have found that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of hospitalization and prevent increases of HIV-1 viral load; preventing HIV-1 viral load progression can lead to increases in numbers of CD4 cells, a type of white blood cell that fights infection [31,32]. However, one trial showed that selenium supplementation in pregnant women can prevent early death in infants but has no effects on maternal viral load or CD4 counts [33,34].
Women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies tend to develop hypothyroxinemia while they are pregnant and thyroid dysfunction and hypothyroidism after giving birth . The authors of a Cochrane review of hypothyroidism interventions during pregnancy concluded, based on a trial that administered supplements containing 200 mcg selenium as selenomethionine daily to 151 pregnant women with thyroid peroxidase antibodies , that selenomethionine supplementation in this population is a promising strategy, especially for reducing postpartum thyroiditis . However, the authors called for large randomized clinical trials to provide high-quality evidence of this effect.
Medicines are intended to help us live longer and healthier, but taking medicines the wrong way or mixing certain drugs and supplements can be dangerous. Older adults often have multiple medical conditions and may take many medicines, which puts them at additional risk for negative side effects. Read on to learn how to safely take and keep track of all your medicines.
Unwanted or unexpected symptoms or feelings that occur when you take medicine are called side effects. Side effects can be relatively minor, such as a headache or a dry mouth. They can also be life-threatening, such as severe bleeding or damage to the liver or kidneys. The side effects of some medications can also affect your driving.
A generic drug is a medication created to work the same way and have the same effects as an already marketed brand-name drug. Generic drugs and their brand-name equivalents contain the same active ingredients, which are the parts of the medicine that make it work. A generic drug is just as safe, and is of equal strength and quality, as a brand-name drug. You take a generic drug the same way as a brand-name drug. Generic drugs are usually less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, and they are more likely to be covered by health insurance.
Taking many medications can also increase the risk for side effects and other unintended problems. Researchers are studying deprescribing, an approach to safely reduce or stop medications that are potentially inappropriate or unnecessary. Read how NIA supports research on polypharmacy and deprescribing to help ensure older adults take only those medicines they need to help them live full, healthy lives.
This pamphlet lists medications that can cause harm when taken with alcohol and describes the effects that can result. The list gives the brand name by which each medicine is commonly known (for example, Benadryl) and its generic name or active ingredient (in Benadryl, this is diphenhydramine). The list presented here does not include all the medicines that may interact harmfully with alcohol. Most important, the list does not include all the ingredients in every medication.
Mixing alcohol and medicines can be harmful. Alcohol, like some medicines, can make you sleepy, drowsy, or lightheaded. Drinking alcohol while taking medicines can intensify these effects. You may have trouble concentrating or performing mechanical skills. Small amounts of alcohol can make it dangerous to drive, and when you mix alcohol with certain medicines you put yourself at even greater risk. Combining alcohol with some medicines can lead to falls and serious injuries, especially among older people.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as tranylcypromine and phenelzine, when combined with alcohol, may result in serious heart-related side effects. Risk for dangerously high blood pressure is increased when MAOIs are mixed with tyramine, a byproduct found in beer and red wine
Depression (also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working.
Antidepressants are medicines commonly used to treat depression. They may help improve the way your brain uses certain chemicals that control mood or stress. You may need to try several different antidepressant medicines before finding the one that improves your symptoms and has manageable side effects. A medication that has helped you or a close family member in the past will often be considered.
HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. HIV medicines also reduce the risk of HIV transmission. But HIV medicines can sometimes cause side effects. Most side effects from HIV medicines are manageable, but a few can be serious.
Overall, the benefits of HIV medicines far outweigh the risk of side effects. In addition, newer HIV medicines cause fewer side effects than medicines used in the past. As HIV treatment continues to improve, people are less likely to have side effects from HIV medicines.
Other side effects from some HIV medicines can lead to problems that may not appear for months or years after starting a medicine. For example, high cholesterol can be a side effect of some HIV medicines. High cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease.
Having another medical condition or taking other medicines can increase the risk of side effects from HIV medicines. Drug-drug interactions between HIV medicines or with other medicines a person is taking can also cause side effects.
Use the Clinicalinfo Drug Database to learn more about your HIV medicines, including possible side effects. For help using the Drug Database, contact an Clinicalinfo health information specialist by phone (1-800-448-0440) or email (HIVinfo@NIH.gov).
Because of the risk of interactions between alternative and conventional therapies, people with MS should discuss all the therapies they are using with their doctor, especially herbal supplements. Herbal supplements have biologically active ingredients that could have harmful effects on their own or interact harmfully with other medications.
Other studies aim to develop better neuroimaging tools, such as more powerful MRI methods, to diagnose MS, track disease progression, and assess treatments. NINDS scientists are collecting MRIs of the brain and spinal cord and scans of the retina, along with other clinical and biological data, from more than 100 individuals with MS and 50 individuals without the disease over a period of years to observe changes in the course of MS. Investigators are using MRI to study the natural history of MS and to help define the mechanism of action and cause of side effects of disease modifying therapies.
As part of a larger effort to develop and validate effective biomarkers (signs that may indicate risk of a disease or be used to monitor its progression) for neurological disease, NINDS is supporting two definitive multicenter MS studies:
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic, proinflammatory cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including lymphocytes, monocytes, and fibroblasts. Infection by SARS-CoV induces a dose-dependent production of IL-6 from bronchial epithelial cells.1 COVID-19-associated systemic inflammation and hypoxemic respiratory failure can be associated with heightened cytokine release, as indicated by elevated blood levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and ferritin.2-4 It is hypothesized that modulating IL-6 levels or the effects of IL-6 may reduce the duration and/or severity of COVID-19. 041b061a72